November 2014
2014年11月号
(英語版)


Big Oil RIP?
石油時代終わりの始まり


Are we living through the dying days of the oil age? The oil industry is certainly facing challenging times. While the world is still thoroughly dependent on 'black gold', change is on the horizon. Capital expenditure by the largest oil companies is now five times what it was in 2000, yet production has barely increased. This is because cheap and easy sources of crude have become scarce. The oil majors are forced to go after harder-to-reach, resource-intensive, more polluting, dangerous and thus more expensive sources of oil - such as tar sands, oil shale, ultra-deepwater and Arctic.

However, climate scientists tell us these are exactly the sources of oil we must leave in the ground to have any hope of avoiding a catastrophic 6 degree temperature rise. Meanwhile, the renewables boom is breaking records daily, demonstrating that a world beyond fossil-fuel dependence is within our grasp.

The implications of this looming 'carbon bubble' are gradually dawning on the financial sector. Grassroots resistance to oil extraction is racking up successes, and fossil-fuel divestment campaigns are sweeping the globe. But the likes of Shell, Exxon and Chevron won't go down without an almighty fight. The November issue of New Internationalist will explore these momentous developments and highlight strategies to prize big oil’s toxic grip from our political process.

私たちが生きるこの時代、石油はその終わりに向かっているのかもしれない。石油業界が困難な状況に立たされていることは間違いない。世界は依然として「黒い金」に完全に依存しているが、それでも変化の兆しが現れている。大手石油企業の設備投資額は、現在2000年の5倍にも上っているが、石油生産量の増加は微々たるものだ。それは、安価で容易に採掘できる原油がもうわずかしか残っていないことを物語っている。石油メジャーは、オイルサンド、オイルシェール、深海油田、北極海といった採掘が難しく、より多くの投入が必要で、よりひどい汚染をもたらし、もっと危険な石油、つまりコストがずっと高い石油を求めざるを得なくなっているのだ。

しかしこのような石油は、気候科学者たちが言う手をつけるべきでない類いの石油そのものなのである。なぜなら、それに手をつければ、6度という破滅的な地球の気温上昇を回避できる望みが絶たれてしまうからだ。一方、再生可能エネルギーブームの拡大はとどまるところを知らず、化石燃料依存の克服に手の届くところまで来ていることを示している。

金融界にもこのような影響の兆しが現れている。石油採掘に対する草の根レベルでの抵抗は成功を重ね、化石燃料への投資を避けるキャンペーンが世界中で行われている。ただ、シェル、エクソン、シェブロンのような企業に対しては、相当な闘いを挑まない限り変化をもたらすことはできない。

ニュー・インターナショナリスト11月号では、これらの闘いのきわめて重要な先行きを探り、巨大企業の有害な影響を政治プロセスを通じて取り除く戦略に焦点を当てる。

NI

No.477

Contents

目次

 

Agenda
Stories making the news this month
6 A place to feel free in Chechnya
6 Chile’s agitating students
7 Women on board in India
7 Norwegian ¬ ords at risk
7 Introducing Frank Bainimarama
8 Guatemala: where are the disappeared?
8 Poverty breeds disease
9 Prying plumbers in Britain
9 Killing without counting
PLUS: Scratchy Lines by cartoonist Simon Kneebone
and Reasons to be Cheerful.

The Big Story
Big Oil RIP?
10 Ending the oil age
Change is coming. The dominance of the ‘oil majors’ is being assailed from all sides. Jess Worth examines whether growing pressure for divestment, disruption and alternatives can knock Big Oil off its perch.

15 Action to end the oil age
Wherever you are, there’s something you can do.

16 A year of oil resistance
Success stories from around the world.

18 Big Oil’s looming bubble
Investors are starting to wonder whether oil’s such a good bet, reveals Jeremy Leggett.

20 The spirit of Saro-Wiwa rises
Twenty years after the execution of their leader, the Ogoni people are rebelling once more, with protests, blockades, lawsuits and international support. Patrick Naagbanton reports from the frontline.

23 My spy
Why did an oil company go to such lengths to monitor Jess Worth’s activism? Perhaps we are more powerful than we think.


Features
28 A deeper pain
The daily reality of life in Gaza creates unseen psychological scars, writes psychiatrist Samah Jabr.

30 Rocking the boat
Graeme Green talks to author and activist Naomi Klein about why global warming is a political issue
Mixed Media
34 Music reviews
Animism by Tanya Tagaq; Spirit of Malombo by Julian Bahula.

35 Film reviews
The Overnighters, directed by Jesse Moss; The Imitation Game, directed by Morten Tyldum.

36 Book reviews
By Night the Mountain Burns, by Juan Tomas Avila Laurel; Inequality and the 1% by Danny Dorling; Assata by Assata Shakur; and This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs the Climate by Naomi Klein.
PLUS: Also out there…

Opinion
33 Kate Smurthwaite
So much for free speech…
PLUS: Polyp’s Big Bad World cartoon.


Regulars
4 Letters
The ills of gold; man-hating feminists; and more on Mother Teresa.
PLUS: I’m a New Internationalist.

5 Letter from Bangui
It’s hard to trust official sources of information, so CAR’s citizens are desperate for the truth, discovers Ruby Diamonde.

26 Country Pro¬file: Turkey

32 Making Waves
Afghan photo-journalist Barat Ali Batoor tells Michelle Slater about using his own experience of asylum to help others.

38 And Finally
‘Africa isn’t all refugee camps and windswept savannahs’. Nigerian author and journalist Dayo Olopade on the future of the Bright Continent.

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